Category Archives: Geology

9. Mining

9.1 PRIMITIVE EXTRACTION I include under mining all human activities concerned with the extraction of inert natural materials. As such, the extraction of stone for construction, is mining. At the beginning, perhaps the easiest was the excavation in relatively soft sandstones, to … Continue reading

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8. Prospecting

8.1 GRASS ROOTS Grass roots exploration is the general term for the very initial stage of prospecting that starts from a zero base, that is, neither geological maps, nor aerial photos are available, and often not even topographic maps. Of … Continue reading

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7. Structure and Metamorphism

7.1 Faulting I have very few structural photos, mainly because only the little ones fit within a picture frame, and of these very few are worth photographing. Faulting occurs when the rocks under stress are brittle and therefore break instead … Continue reading

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6. Sedimentation

With very few exceptions, materials that have been weathered and/or eroded, are transported elsewhere and eventually settle. Sedimentation is the processes to which these materials are subjected to until they are deposited, and transport is the main mechanisms involved. This transportation … Continue reading

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5. Unconformity

A sediment is a mass of material that originates from the weathering and or erosion of the earth’s surface substances which, in the majority of cases, have been transported and deposited elsewhere. Naturally, the transporting agents are the same as … Continue reading

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4. Erosion

According to the American Geological Institute Glossary, erosion is the natural process whereby the materials of the earth’s crust are loosened or worn away and simultaneously removed to another place. These natural processes, in an increasing order of power, are … Continue reading

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3. Weathering

3.1 General 3.1.1 Initial Stage Weathering is the chemical alteration caused by the atmospheric water in vapor and/or liquid form, due to the reacting agents carried in solution. Thus, this was the first step in the alteration of the original … Continue reading

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2. Igneous Rocks

2.1 Origin and Composition Convection cells must have developed in the Earth’s Mantle at a very early stage, consequently initiating the differentiation of the elements composing the original magma. The less dense elements, silicon rich, accumulated at the top of … Continue reading

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1. Introduction

Geology is the study of the Earth’s crust and its continuous process of modification. At the beginning of solidification, approximately 3,9 Ga (giga annum = 109 years) ago, there were only Igneous Rocks, originating from the consolidation of the initial magma. … Continue reading

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